ارائه راهکارهای پدافند غیرعامل در معماری مراکز درمانی (نمونه موردی: مرکز آموزشی درمانی شهید بهشتی قم)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشگاه آزاد یدگار امام واحد شهر ری

چکیده

تدابیر پدافند غیرعامل در معماری و شهرسازی می‌تواند علاوه بر کاهش خسارات، تهدیدات انسان‌ساز مانند جنگ، در کاهش خطرپذیری در برابر انواع خطرات طبیعی نیز مؤثر باشد. مراکز درمانی و بهداشتی به‌عنوان یکی از نیازمندی‌های بنیادی و حیاتی در شرایط اضطراری باید به‌گونه‌ای طراحی و ساخته شود که استانداردهای تعریف‌شده امنیت در برابر حوادث و تهدیدات را شامل بوده و بتواند اهداف کلی پدافند غیرعامل را  محقق سازد. لازم است این مراکز، در شرایط اضطراری آسیب‌پذیری نداشته باشند یا بنا بر سطح عملکردی حداقل آسیب‌پذیری را  داشته باشد. درواقع  بیمارستان ایمن  نوعی پناهگاه درمانی است که شرایط بستری شدن و درمان را به‌ دور از تهدیدات بیرونی در هنگام بحران امکان‌پذیر می‌سازد. مرکز آموزشی پژوهشی درمانی شهید بهشتی قم بزرگ‌ترین مرکز درمانی استان قم است. لذا با توجه به‌ضرورت بازطراحی این بیمارستان و با توجه به اصول پدافند غیرعامل، در این بیمارستان موارد مورد نیاز طراحی دفاع غیرعامل بر پایه عواملی همانند مکان‌یابی، پراکندگی، استتار، استحکامات، تأسیسات، طراحی، قدرت مرمت‌پذیری و... مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و بر اساس اصول ارائه‌شده، راهکارهای مناسب در این جهت ارائه می‌شود. روش پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی است و داده‌ها از منابع اسنادی، کتابخانه‌ای و مشاهدات میدانی به‌دست‌آمده‌اند. با استفاده از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی، نشان می‌دهد که طراحی بیمارستان از نظر فرم ساختمان، مکان‌یابی، انبارهای اضطراری، دسترسی‌ها، هم‌جواری با فضاهای عمومی، پارکینگ با اصول پدافند غیرعامل هم‌خوانی دارد. همچنین، بیمارستان از نظر نما، پناهگاه امن، استتار و اختفا، طراحی فضای سبز و شاخص‌های ایمنی فاقد هم‌خوانی با اصول پدافند غیرعامل می‌باشد. می‌بایست تمامی اصول پدافند غیرعامل برای حفاظت از ساختمان‌ها با درجه اهمیت بالا در طراحی و اجرا موردتوجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presenting Passive Defense Strategies in the Architecture of Medical Centers; Case Study: Shahid Beheshti Medical Training Center in Qom

نویسنده [English]

  • yousef esmaizadeh
چکیده [English]

In addition to reducing damage, passive defense measures in architecture and urban planning can also be useful in reducing the risk of natural hazards, such as war. Medical centers as one of the basic and vital needs in emergency situations should be designed and designed. Build security centers at a defined functional level in the face of accidents and threats, so that they can achieve the overall goals of passive defense, including continuing necessary activities and facilitating crisis management and promoting sustainability and sustainability at their operational level. The country's macro at various levels (national, provincial, city, city, etc.) can provide the required services in this field in emergency situations and these centers themselves are not vulnerable in emergency situations, or at least minimally vulnerable in terms of performance level. They exist. In fact, a safe hospital is a kind of medical shelter that makes hospitalization and treatment possible without external threats in times of crisis. Qom Shahid Beheshti Medical Research Center is the largest medical center in Qom province, so due to the need to redesign this hospital according to the principles of passive defense in this study, first the items needed for this design are mentioned and then this hospital in passive defense based on factors such as location. Distribution, camouflage, strengths, facilities, design, restorative power, etc. are reviewed and good solutions are provided in this regard. The research method is descriptive-analytical and the data are obtained from documentary, library and field observations. The results show that the principles of passive defense in the building of Shahid Beheshti Medical Research Center have not been fully observed and should be redesigned. Build all the principles of passive defense.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Passive Defense
  • Medical Centers
  • Qom City
  • Hospital Design
  • Qom Shahid Beheshti Medical Center
   [1]      A.Asgharian Jedi, “Architectural Requirements in Sustainable Passive Defense”, First Edition, Shahid Beheshti University Press, Tehran,2007. (in persian)##
   [2]      H ،Kamran, D ,Amini, “Application of passive defense in urban housing planning. Urban” - Regional Studies and Research Journal. 2013;4(15):21-24. (in persian)##
   [3]      SB ,Hosseini. “Passive defense criteria in urban public buildings architectural design”. First Edition. Tehran: Abed Publication; 2010. (in persian)##
   [4]      S,Maleki, Y, Mahalli, “Study and Analysis of Vulnerability of Hospital Structures from the Perspective of Passive Defense Measures Using FAHP Technique (Case Study: Dezful City) ”, Volume 8, Number 3, Fall, pp. 76-65, 2017. (in persian)##
   [5]      Office of the National Building Code, “The Twenty-First Issue of the National Building Code - Passive Defense”, seventh edition, Tehran, Iran Gostaresh Publishin, 2017. (in persian)##
   [6]      K, Mo'meni, K, Attarian, M, Shirzad, N, Haj Musa Boroujerdi, “Recognition of the principles of passive defense in the architectural design of Ganjavian Hospital in Dezful”, Scientific Quarterly for the Promotion of Passive Defense, Year 8, No. 4, 2017. (in persian)##
   [7]      A.AsgharianJedi,and,M.Ghobadi0“ Explosion-proof field hospital in Iran (manifestation of medical and engineering engineering knowledge assistance in the medical support of the wounded) ” 2017. Safa. (in persian)##
   [8]      M.Abedini, H,Haj Hosseinzadeh, “The role of passive defense in the project from the perspective of interactive model (PMIT) of the Iranian Defense Project Management System (IDPMS), the third international project management meeting” , 2007. (in persian)##
   [9]      Y,Izadi, “The Fourth Period of Urban Warfare Against Iran”, Year 12, Issue 44, 2013. (in persian)##
[10]      A, Ardalan, A, Sabzghabaie, A, Najafi. “Hospital Disaster Risk Assessment. First Edition. Tehran: Movafagh Publications” , 2011. (in persian)##
[11]      J, Hashemi Fesharaki, G, Jalali, “Passive Defense in the Mirror of Laws and Regulations”, Passive Defense Organization,2010. (in persian)##
[12]      A ,Nezamkheirabadi, “Passive Defense requirements in the design and construction of esert hospitals with an emphasis on camouflage, concealment and deception”. National conferencae of passive defense in science and engineering with an emphasis on camouflage, concealment and deception; University of Imam Hussein.2014. (in persian)##
[13]      G,Mirzaie, S, Savadkoohifar, SB, Hosein, “A Review and an Introduction to the Architectural Spatial Structure of Field Hospitals”. Passive Defense Quarterly,2013. (in persian)##
[14]      A,H,Arab, , “Application of Urban Planning and Passive Defense”, Malek Ashtar University of Technology; and Armed Forces Elite Foundation, February ,2011. (in persian)##
[15]      A ,Haji Ebrahim Zargar, S, Mesgari Hoshyar, “Passive Defense in Architecture A Strategy to Reduce Accident Danger”, Third International Summit on Comprehensive Crisis Management in Unexpected Events, Tehran,2007. (in persian)##
[16]      SH ,Hosseini, A, Seddighi, H ,Hosseiniamini. “Pathology of mashhad hospitals with emphasis on passive defense approach case study: razavi and emam rezahospitals” ,Journal geography. 2014. (in persian)##
[17]      S ,Savadkouhi, J ,Zokaee fateh,“Passive defense considerations and crisis management in the field of Emergency Medical Services in crisis situations”, National conferencae of passive defense in science and engineering with an emphasis on camouflage, concealment and deception, University of Imam Hussein.2014. (in persian)##
[18]      A ,Haji Ebrahim Zargar, S, Mesgari Hoshyar, “Passive Defense in Architecture A Strategy to Reduce Accident Danger”, Third International Summit on Comprehensive Crisis Management in Unexpected Events, Tehran,2007. (in persian)##
[19]      M, Asgari, Mirzaei, S, Mohammad, Savadkuhifar, “review of field hospitals. M. From the perspective of passive defense”, Scientific Quarterly for the Promotion of Passive Defense, Year 3, 2012. (in persian)##
[20]      M ,Pour Mohammadi, “Standard Collection of Technical Deputy, Conditions and Selection of Land for Medical and Hospital Centers”, 2014. (in persian)##